The Sino-foreign Conflicts and the Responses of Modern
Conflict, with respect to diplomacy, generally indicates the paradox of the interests among those sovereign states while it appears with the forms more than the concrete and keen wars. The author not merely concentrates on the different forms of conflicts in the modern diplomatic history of China, but also intends to inspect the entities with the form of non-sovereign states and the mutual relations between the governments and societies as well as tries to more thoroughly explore the detailed parts of the modern diplomatic history of China. Hence, this work includes not solely the reactions of China toward the particular wars and the events concerning the foreign affairs, but the foreign relations of China from the viewpoints of the civil and criminal cases, and the study of the diplomatic process of modern China by means of the cultural or economic policies, such as customs duties and expositions. We hope that the depth and breadth of the field of the modern diplomatic history of China will be broadened and widened with the efforts of several Taiwanese young scholars of diplomatic history.