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Location Home > Publications> Books> Books> Mr. Chiang Kai-shek in 1937-1945
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Mr. Chiang Kai-shek in 1937-1945
2017-11-29
This book series is based on original 82 volumes of Chiang Kai-shek’s Chronological Event Transcripts previously published by Academia Historica. In this 13- volume series, all documents had been carefully re- edited, punctuated, and proofread and are also reviewed and approved by distinguished historians and experts. In addition to extracts from Chiang Kai-shek’s diaries, introspection, and speeches, this series also contains a large number of extracts of letters, telegrams, and dispatches, minutes of diplomatic meetings, and contents of treaties and agreements. With such abundant first-hand historical documents, this series must be a great channel to understand the history of modern China.

Mr. Chiang Kai-shek in 1937

In 1937, various national constructions had commenced, and the national power gradually progressed. The Ministry of Industry formulated a five-year scheme for national industrial distribution and improvement. At the same time, the Japanese Kwantung Army revealed its great ambition little by little, such as undertaking the North China Buffer State Strategy, and supporting the independence of Inner Mongolia. In the second half of this year, the Marco Polo Bridge Incident broke out and led directly to full-scale war between China and Japan. Chiang Kai-shek claimed that China should not only be prepared to fight a long war against the Japanese Army but also seek international intervention over this event. Therefore, records of several countries’ diplomatic dispatches, telegrams, memorandums or meeting minutes about the Marco Polo Bridge Incident, including China, Japan, the United Kingdom, the United States, Germany, and the Soviet Union, are recorded and available in this volume.

Mr. Chiang Kai-shek in 1938

In 1938, Chiang Kai-shek paid much attention to international situation, including the Munich Conference held by major powers of Europe, a policy of appeasement followed by the United Kingdom and France, the overweening attitude and bluster of Hitler, and the isolation of the Soviet Union. As for China-Japan relations, Chiang, on the one hand, still hoped that both countries could seek to mend fences with each other through peace negotiations. However, on the other hand, Chiang also advocated the amity between China and the Soviet Union in order to receive its military assistance and jointly fight against Japan. Details of negotiations are included in this volume. With regard to warfare, the Nationalist Government confronted a great menace of Japan’s invasion. Important cities, for example, Xuzhou, Kaifeng, Guangzhou, and Wuhan, were occupied by the Japanese Army one after another. How Chiang assessed the battlefield situation and deployed armies are shown in this volume as well.

Mr. Chiang Kai-shek in 1939

In 1939, the Nationalist Government focused on governing and developing Northwest and Southwest China, such as establishing Xikang Province and controlling Yunnan’s tin industry. After meetings of the Kuomintang’s Fifth Central Committee, the resolution declared that it was time to commence the second stage of the War of Resistance against Japan through the “National Spiritual Mobilization Movement.” In the meantime, Chiang Kai-shek still tried to stop Wang Ching-wei from joining the Japanese. As for international situation, the United Kingdom and Japan held bilateral talks in Tokyo, and World War II had broken out in Europe. Chiang noticed the changeful situation in international politics and commented that both the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union watched with folded arms and believed in an idiom that “the wolf has a winning game when the shepherds quarrel.” Chiang attempted to collaborate closely with the Soviet Union, and thus wrote several letters to Stalin to propose a united anti-Japanese front that would include China, the United Kingdom, the United States, and the Soviet Union. In addition, in this volume, there are also records about how China received loans from the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union, and an official visit of Nehru, the leader of the Indian National Congress, to China in Chongqing for official collaboration.

Mr. Chiang Kai-shek in 1940

In 1940, the fourth year of the War of Resistance, affairs in the military, diplomacy, finance, economy, transportation and communications, and food and commodities prices were under severe situations. The Nationalist Government faced the problem of inflation which resulted in a series of rice riots and sharp rise in food prices. Therefore, the government’s primary challenges in interior affairs were to control rising food and commodities price, to ban food hoarding, and to protect rightful merchants’ rights of management. Besides, the government also had to deal with problems of the incitement of the Communist Party of China and attacks of the New Fourth Army on the Republic of China Armed Forces. As for diplomatic affairs, developments of Sino-Soviet relations and Sino-American relations, and both countries’ financial and military aids were important to be noticed. Aside from those events mentioned above, the implementation of local self-rule under the new county system, and the establishment of the Wang Ching-wei regime are also recorded in this volume.

Mr. Chiang Kai-shek in 1941

In 1941, fierce fighting of the War of Resistance continued. The Nationalist Government confronted internal disturbances and international threats. The New Fourth Army frequently disobeyed orders and disciplines of the Republic of China Armed Forces and took actions without any permission. Chiang Kai-shek was thus urged to revoke the designation of the New Fourth Army. The Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor changed the international situation and led to the opening of the Pacific War. The Nationalist Government allied with the United States and the United Kingdom to declare war on Japan, Germany, and Italy. As for interior affairs, in order to cope with severe problems of rising food and commodities price, and food hoarding, the government implemented a new land tax policy to collect in kind. In addition, the government also convened the Third National Finance Conference and revised the system of governing the allocation of government revenues and expenditures so as to meet changeful situations during wartime.

Mr. Chiang Kai-shek in 1942 (2 volumes)

In 1942, China experienced huge changes in diplomatic and military affairs and confronted grand challenges in economic and interior affairs. Chiang Kai-shek had state visits to India and Burma and met with Indian political leaders Gandhi and Nehru to express his sincere concern for the independence of India. However, this behavior caused the tension between China and the United Kingdom. Besides, the Nationalist Government sent the Chinese Expeditionary Force into Burma to fight together with the Allies. In order to overcome bad economy during wartime, the Executive Yuan implemented a policy of price controls which greatly affected domestic economy. At the same time, the Soviet Union kept on harassing and trespassing on Xinjiang, and Sheng Shih-tsai, the Governor of Xinjiang, firmly expressed his fidelity and support to the Nationalist Government. Details of negotiations about loans and military aids from the United States are recorded in this volume too.

Mr. Chiang Kai-shek in 1943 (2 volumes)

In 1943, China achieved great achievements in diplomatic affairs, such as negotiating with the United States and the United Kingdom for new treaties or agreements, and Madame Chiang’s successful visits to the United States and Canada. In order to discuss current warfare and postwar arrangement, the Cairo Conference and the Tehran Conference were successively held in November. Chiang Kai-shek was invited to attend the Cairo Conference, and this was the very first time for China to participate in such international conference as a great power in the world. Chiang also actively mediated the tension between the United Kingdom and India. For Chiang, these diplomatic achievements were China’s victory and success. All these clearly show that China was ready to play an important role and take the responsibility to maintain world order. As for interior affairs, the Chairman of the Nationalist Government, Lin Sen, passed away. Therefore, the Kuomintang held the Eleventh Plenary Session of the Fifth Central Committee and elected Chiang as the Chairman of the Nationalist Government and the Premier of the Executive Yuan so as to consolidate leadership during wartime. Also in this year, Chiang published his two books China’s Destiny and Chinese Economic Theory to explicit his vision for China’s interior and economic developments.

Mr. Chiang Kai-shek in 1944 (2 volumes)

In 1944, there was a sudden change in international relations, and diplomatic conditions of China turned to be pessimistic. Chiang Kai-shek was upset and regarded them as dangers and threats to China. China’s relations between the United States, the United Kingdom, and the Soviet Union were affected by changes of warfare. For example, as conflicts between Chiang and Stilwell worsened, Chiang made up his mind to ask Roosevelt to have Stilwell been replaced even though Chiang was pressured by Roosevelt and Marshall. Besides, a note of discord showed in relations between China and the United Kingdom regarding the India issue in postwar time. China and the Soviet Union then argued with each other due to the Soviet Union’s support to the Communist Party of China and their trespass in Xinjiang. As for interior affairs, there had been a decrease in government finance that forced the government to reinforce the policy of price controls and take other emergency actions. At the same time, the Communist Party of China kept on developing and strengthening its power, so the Nationalist Government must adopt some possible strategies to deal with their threats. The rivalry between each other implied a sign of changes in postwar period.

Mr. Chiang Kai-shek in 1945 (2 volumes)

In 1945, the Allies eventually defeated the Axis powers. Records included in this volume reveal Chiang Kai-shek’s strategies of military deployment by the end of the War of Resistance and after the victory, conflicts between the Kuomintang and the Communist Party of China, international relations and negotiations among China, the United States, the United Kingdom, and the Soviet Union, and important domestic and international events.

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